Manganese (Mn) is essential to iron and steel production by virtue of its sulfur-fixing, deoxidizing, and alloying properties. Steel making, including its iron making component, accounts for most domestic manganese demand, presently in the range of 85% to 90% of the total. Manganese ferroalloys, consisting of various grades of ferro manganese and silico manganese, are used to provide most of this key ingredient to steel making. Products for construction, machinery, and transportation are leading end uses of manganese. Manganese also is a key component of certain widely used aluminum alloys and, in oxide form, dry cell batteries.